The e-learning videos of chapter 3 “Research logic” introduce you to the underlying philosophical or, more precisely, logical aspects of research. The basic understanding of research logic is a necessary foundation for every research project. Induction and deduction are the two major types of reasoning and are frequently applied in research. Both types provide a framework for generating inter-subjectively comprehensible conclusions and projections. The understanding of the basic structure of syllogisms, the ancient Greek sets of logical conclusions as laid out by Aristotle, helps to differentiate between universal and existential propositions as well as affirmative and negative statements. The deductive-nomological model and the inductive statistical model provide techniques to formally describe logical reasoning. These thoughts and ideas help to comprehend the concepts of falsification and falsifiability. Finally, indicator and causal hypotheses are introduced in order to discuss individual limitations of induction and deduction and the benefit of a combination of both types of reasoning.
Link to e-learning videos: Overview of chapter 3
The e-learning videos of chapter 2 “Academic Principles” introduce you to five major academic principles. These sets of unwritten rules prescribe a certain formal and material behaviour in academic research and writing. Although there is often no legally binding rule set in academic research and writing, certain conventions have been developed and generally accepted by academia. The five major principles presented here are a way to collect dispersed rules and standards and organise them in a systematic way. The five principles are defined as accuracy, completeness, clarity, comparability and materiality. The principle of accuracy implies the observation of applicable rules and norms, the inter-subjective comprehensibility of the research output, the timeliness and currentness of processed information as well as the true and fair representation of the research project. The principle of completeness demands qualitative completeness and quantitative completeness. The principle of clarity requires the clearness and the proper composition of academic texts. The principle of comparability implies obeying the status quo of the discipline and explaining deviations. The principle of materiality prescribes an adequate reduction of inherent complexity and demands adequate decision usefulness for the recipients of a research project.
Link to e-learning videos: Overview of chapter 2