New videos added: structuring technique

A research problem needs to be clarified and has to be transformed into a precisely formulated research question. This is done in the chapter “research problem”. A pragmatic way to structure the chapter “research problem” is to apply the concept of deductive reasoning. According to deduction, the writer advances from paragraphs with general information to paragraphs with a higher specificity and ends with the research question. Simultaneously, the research problem with its research question determines the overall structure of the research paper, i.e. the outline. Once an aim has been identified, its implicit logic prescribes the structure of the outline. Moreover, the outline should be aligned with the structure of the chapter “course of investigation” and, if applicable, with a chapter “research method”. A research paper ends with a conclusion that can be segmented into three subchapters: summary of research findings, critical acclaim and outlook. Again, the summary of the findings should be aligned with the structure of the research problem and the outline of the main body. Finally, it is good style to critically reflect upon one’s own research findings in the subchapter “critical acclaim” and to provide an outlook regarding potential future developments in the subchapter “outlook”.

Link to e-learning videos: Overview of chapter 9

New videos added: elements of a research paper

The structural elements to be applied in academic writing depend on the nature of the research project. Manifestations of academic writing range from student assignments and term papers to doctoral theses and other forms of complex research documentations. Some structural elements are always used in research papers. Other structural elements are optionally or selectively used. Technically, research papers can be divided into four sections: addments, directories, main body and annex. Each of these sections contains different structural elements that have to be applied in accordance with the formal instructions laid out in academic style guides. Although the applicable rules may vary according to the field of research, some commonalities for structural elements exist. These commonalities may be based on logical considerations or result from traditional academic conventions. Important elements to be discussed in this chapter are cover page, abstract, outline, directories, main body, bibliography and list of references, glossary and appendix, declaration of originality as well as data carrier and electronic storage media.

Link to e-learning videos: Overview of chapter 7